Environmental taxes in the EU: countries compared

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The FINANCIAL – Government revenues from environmental taxes amounted to €369 billion in 2017 in the European Union (EU), compared with €264 billion in 2002. Over the same period, the share of environmental taxes in total government revenues from taxes and social contributions1 decreased from 6.8 % in 2002 to 6.1 % in 2017.

Taxes on energy accounted for more than three-quarters of the total revenues from environmental taxes (77 % of the total), well ahead of taxes on transport (20 %) and those on pollution and resources (3 %).

Highest share of environmental taxes in Latvia, lowest in Luxembourg

The proportion of environmental taxes in total revenues from taxes and social contributions varied significantly across the EU Member States. In 2017, Latvia had the highest share of environmental taxes (11.2 %), ahead of four other EU Member States with a share of at least 9 %: Slovenia and Greece (both 10.2 %), Croatia and Bulgaria (both 9.1 %).

At the opposite end of the scale, Luxembourg (4.4 %), Germany (4.6 %) and Sweden (4.9 %) recorded the lowest shares of environmental taxes, followed by France and Belgium (both 5.0 %).

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