The FINANCIAL — Improving Lesotho’s national water resources infrastructure and increasing water security in an environment of drought and floods and future climatic variations, is central to boosting the Government of Lesotho’s efforts to promote long-term sustainable macroeconomic development including food security and job creation, according to a World Bank report released on September 14.
The report, Lesotho Water Security and Climate Change Assessment, evaluates the vulnerabilities, challenges, and opportunities in the Lesotho water management system. It offers an analysis on the need to ensure continued development of one of the Mountain Kingdoms most valuable natural assets, its water resources, in order to increase security around the nexus of water, food, and energy along with sustained economic development. This is in line with the World Bank Group’s goal to support the most vulnerableby ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity.
“We welcome this very important work. It is the first of its kind and provides us with the evidence that will help us utilize our most valuable natural resource effectively in improving the lives of our people and to develop resilience against future climatic shocks,” Ralechate Mokose, Minister of Water for the Kingdom of Lesotho.
Abundant water, along with high altitude and geographic proximity to major demand centers in southern Africa, is one of Lesotho’s most valuable renewable and sustainable natural assets. In a country characterized by high levels of poverty and income inequality, water contributes roughly 10 percent to overall gross domestic product (GDP). A large portion of this benefit comes from revenues associated with the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) which enables the transfer of water from the water-rich highlands of Lesotho to the economic engine of the African continent in Gauteng, South Africa and contributes to the development of hydropower resources.
“We find that with projected temperature increases, climate change will have an impact on the long-term sustainable macroeconomic development of Lesotho, affecting domestic and industrial water security, patterns of agricultural production, and opportunities afforded through the further development of water transfer infrastructure,” said Guangzhe Chen, World Bank Country Director for Lesotho.
Simulations show that continued development of existing water infrastructure such as the Lesotho Lowlands Water Supply Services (LLWSS) are critical to improving the reliability and resilience of the domestic and industrial sectors. They show that exploring interconnections between the developed water resources through LHWP and linking these to address domestic and industrial demands in the lowlands could help improve the resilience of the existing system. Furthermore, the implementation of the further phases of the LHWP will increase the transfer capacity and also support additional benefits including about 11,000 jobs to be created during the construction period.
The report also finds that investing in irrigation could boost incomes and enhance food security, especially in an environment in which agricultural production is dependent on rain. Realizing the Government’s ambition for the development of 12,000 ha of irrigation could significantly impact crop production with additional maize, beans, peas, sorghum, and wheat ranging of 70,000 to more than 100,000 tonnes per year. This would represent an increase in yields of as much as 50%, depending on the climate scenario.
“Investing in monitoring and enhanced data acquisition will help improve future adaptive capacity and on-farm responses to changes in climate patterns and levels of variability,” said Marcus Wishart, World Bank Senior Water Resource Management Specialist. Adding that amorethorough assessment of the risks and opportunities for Lesotho’s agricultural sector of potential changes in climate, is also essential.
The report also recommends improved data needed to continue to develop more sophisticated analyses of the complex issues around the country’s most important natural resource. Data constrains around agriculture, the economic uses and value of water, climate and hydrology have the potential to undermine future opportunities.